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Conversion of Pvt. Ltd. to Public Limited

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Conversion of Pvt. Ltd. to Public Limited

Converting a private limited company into a public limited company represents a significant strategic move for businesses aiming to enhance their scalability and access to capital. The decision to go public is often prompted by several key distinctions between private and public limited companies, primarily related to the concept of Initial Public Offering (IPO) and the ability to offer shares to the general public. This transition removes restrictions on share transferability, enables unlimited membership, and provides easier access to funding. Ultimately, it fosters growth and flexibility, positioning the company for greater success in the ever-evolving business landscape.

IPO – Unlocking Share Transferability: One of the fundamental transformations that occur during this conversion is the introduction of the Initial Public Offering (IPO) mechanism. This crucial step eliminates the restrictions on the transferability of shares, which are inherent in private limited companies. In essence, it opens up the company’s ownership to a broader range of investors, including individual shareholders.


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      Requirements for Converting a Private Limited Company to a Public Limited Company:

      To convert a private limited company into a public limited company, certain requirements must be met. Here are the key steps involved:

      Alteration of Articles of Association (AOA): The company must alter its AOA by removing the restrictions that are specific to private companies. This typically involves deleting clauses that restrict the transferability of shares, as outlined in Section 14 of the Companies Act. This alteration is done by passing a special resolution in a general meeting of shareholders.
      Change of Name: The company should change its name by removing the word 'Private' from its name. This change is made by passing a special resolution under Section 13 of the Companies Act.
      Increase in Number of Members: If the private company has fewer than 7 members, it must take steps to increase the number of members to at least 7. Similarly, if the private company has only 2 directors, it should increase the number of directors to at least 3. These changes help align the company with the requirements of a public limited company.
      Passing Special Resolution: The company officially becomes a public limited company from the date of passing the special resolution in a general meeting.
      Obtaining a Fresh Incorporation Certificate: The change in the company's name, with the removal of the word 'Private,' becomes effective upon the issuance of a fresh incorporation certificate by the Registrar of Companies (ROC). This certificate reflects the company's new status as a public limited company.
      Save Time and Hassle. Apply for Conversion of Pvt. Ltd. to Public Limited!

        Benefits of Converting a Private Limited Company to a Public Limited Company:

        Efficient Share Transfer: Shareholders of a public limited company can transfer their shares more easily and efficiently, making it simpler to bring in new investors or sell existing shares.
        Raise Capital: Public limited companies have the advantage of raising capital from the general public through the issuance of shares, which can be listed on a stock exchange. This provides a significant avenue for capital infusion.
        Greater Reliability: Public limited companies are subject to stringent regulatory compliance requirements, including regular financial reporting and disclosure. This enhances the company's credibility and trustworthiness in the eyes of stakeholders.
        Limited Liability: The concept of limited liability remains intact even after conversion to a public limited company. Shareholders' liability is limited to the amount unpaid on their shares.
        Free Transfer of Shares: Shares of public limited companies are freely transferable, subject to regulations under the SEBI Act and the Companies Act. This allows for the easy buying and selling of shares in the open market.
        Easy Acceptance of Deposits: Public limited companies, subject to Section 76 of the Companies Act, can accept deposits from the public. This can be a valuable source of funding for the company's operations and expansion.
        Save Time and Hassle. Apply for Conversion of Pvt. Ltd. to Public Limited !

          Documents Needed for Conversion:

          PAN Card of Shareholders & Directors: Copies of PAN cards of all shareholders and directors.
          Valid Passport (For Foreign Nationals): Foreign nationals should provide a valid passport.
          Identity Proof: Voter ID, Driving License, or Passport of shareholders and directors.
          Address Proof: Copies of documents such as electricity bills, telephone bills, or the latest bank account statements showing the address of shareholders and directors.
          Photographs: Recent passport-sized photos of shareholders and directors.
          Business Residence Proof: Proof of the company's registered office address, such as a telephone bill or electricity bill.
          No Objection Certificate (NOC) from Landlord: If the office premises are rented, an NOC from the owner of the property.
          Rent Lease Agreement: A copy of the rent lease agreement for the certified office address, if applicable.
          Income Tax Return (ITR): ITR filed for the previous fiscal year.
          Notarized Documents for NRI or Foreign National: In the case of NRI or foreign national directors, notarized documents are required.
          Financial Statements: Duly attested copies of the latest audited financial statements.
          Incorporation Certificates: Declaration of Incorporation, Memorandum of Association (MOA), and Articles of Association (AOA) should be offered.
          Minimum Requirements for Conversion:
          Minimum 7 Shareholders: The company must have a minimum of 7 shareholders.
          Director Identification Number (DIN): All directors should have a DIN.
          Digital Signature Certificate (DSC): At least one director should have a DSC.
          No Minimum Paid-up Capital: There is no minimum paid-up capital requirement for the conversion.
          Director and Shareholder Can Be the Same Person: Directors can also be shareholders of the company.
          Minimum 3 Directors: The company should have a minimum of 3 directors.

          Procedure for Conversion:

          Here is a simplified overview of the procedure for converting a private limited company to a public limited company:

          Board Meeting: Issue a notice for a board meeting to discuss the conversion.
          Alteration of AOA: Pass a board resolution to alter the Articles of Association (AOA) to remove the restrictions specific to private companies.
          Change of Name: Pass a board resolution to change the company's name, removing the word 'Private.'
          General Meeting Notice: Issue a notice for an Extraordinary General Meeting (EGM) to the members. The notice must include the agenda items for the EGM.
          EGM: Conduct the EGM to pass a special resolution for the conversion and approve the amended MOA and AOA.
          File Form MGT-14: File Form MGT-14 with the Registrar of Companies (ROC) within 30 days of passing the special resolution. Attach necessary documents, including the special resolution, amended AOA and MOA, etc.
          File Form INC-27: File Form INC-27 with the ROC within 15 days of passing the special resolution. Attach required documents, including the special resolution, amended AOA and MOA, etc.
          Approval by ROC: Await the approval of Forms MGT-14 and INC-27 by the ROC. Certificate of Incorporation: Once approved, the ROC will issue a fresh Certificate of Incorporation, reflecting the company's new public limited status.

          Post-Conversion Requirements:

          Apply for a new PAN card for the public limited company.
          Update all business letterheads and stationery with the company's new name.
          Update the bank account details of the company.
          Inform tax authorities and relevant regulatory bodies about the conversion.
          Print copies of the new MOA and AOA.
          Comply with SEBI regulations if the company plans to be listed on a stock exchange.

          The decision to go public involves careful planning and compliance with regulatory requirements, as public limited companies have more extensive compliance obligations. Consulting legal and financial experts is advisable to ensure a smooth transition and adherence to all necessary procedures.

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